Lead exposure may be more deadly than previously thought
Lead exposure may be more deadly than previously thought
Lead was used in petrol for decades despite its toxicity. Its use was phased out in the 1990sBEN GURR FOR THE TIMES
14 March, 2018, 09:34
But in a huge proportion of cases, the underlying cause is lead, according to the study: As many as 256,000 adult deaths from heart disease per year in the U.S. can be blamed on low-level lead exposure. There's also ongoing exposure from foods, emissions from industrial sources and contamination from lead smelting sites and lead batteries, the researchers explained. Lead was once widely used in petrol, plumbing, paint, and other consumer products, but as it emerged that high exposure to the chemical - defined as having a blood lead level of 5 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL) or higher - can be toxic to humans and animals, efforts have been made to reduce its use.
"Nobody had even tried to estimate the number of deaths caused by lead exposure using a nationally representative sample of adults", Dr Bruce Lanphear, a professor of health sciences at Simon Fraser University and a leading author of the study told CNN. All participants underwent a medical examination and a test on their lead level.
However, they acknowledged the use of a single baseline lead value to predict outcomes over the following 20 years was not ideal; serial measurements may have been more informative. Over the last 10 years, research has found an array of health effects in adults at low levels; the US Department of Health and Human Services published a monograph in 2012 showing that even very low blood lead levels raised a person's risk for hypertension, heart disease, and reduced kidney function.
Professor Kevin McConway, Emeritus Professor of Applied Statistics at the Open University, said: "The researchers make a very important point in their report - that it is more accurate to view this study as estimating how many deaths might have been prevented if historical exposures to lead had not occurred".
Lead has always been marked out as a toxic substance and has been phased out since the 1990s to reduce its environmental impact.
Researchers estimated that 28.7 per cent of cases of annual premature heart disease death in the United States could be attributed to lead - a total of 256,000 deaths per year.
In children, lead exposure may cause developmental, behavioral, and learning problems, as well as anemia and problems with hearing.
Additionally, the NHANES study only took one reading of participants blood lead, which can change throughout people's lives as they are exposed.
The research found that people with high lead levels were at 37 per cent greater risk of premature death from any cause, 70 per cent times greater risk of cardiovascular death, and double the risk of death from ischemic heart disease, compared to those with lower levels.
They were not, however, able to factor out the possible impact of exposure to arsenic or air pollution. However, because lead can contribute to conditions such as high blood pressure and hardening of arteries, it is also believed to contribute to cardiovascular and heart disease. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to remove workers from exposure when their blood lead levels rise to 50 µg/dL in the construction industry or 60 µg/dL in other industries, and they can return to work when their blood lead levels go down to 40 µg/dL.
The current share price indicates that stock is -6.58% away from its one year high and is moving 27.23% ahead of its 52-week low. The Manufacturers Life Insurance Company increased its position in shares of Time Warner by 25.0% during the fourth quarter.
He is behind the witness stand. "Those last three shots were all after he's been shot once down on the ground in the back. Angilau family's attorney Robert Sykes argued that the witness was already out of danger by the time shots were fired.
But GasBuddy surveys indicate local prices at the pump are still up 21.1 cents per gallon compared with the same time a year ago. Crude oil prices, which drive gasoline prices, jumped at the end of last week, right along with the stock market.
He confirmed that Stockard is a game-time decision for the Bruins , but that the outlook was "more positive than negative". Bonaventure is back in the NCAA Tournament for the first time since 2012 after securing its first at-large bid since 2000.
So it was definitely nerve-wracking kind of, but I was enjoying it so much out there and I was playing my best. Yuki Bhambri of India pulled off a surprise when he toppled ninth-seeded Frenchman Lucas Pouille 6-4 6-4.
White House press secretary Sarah Sanders said last week that "arbitration was won in the President's favor" regarding the case. The statement is an admission that the nondisclosure agreement exists and that it directly involves Trump.
The 36-year-old Spaniard is making his 16th consecutive appearance in Indian Wells , with his best result coming in 2015 (QF). After three days of the BNP Paribas Open, Roger Federer has yet to complete a match.
But the former ICE spokesman said that's not true, adding that he was told to "deflect" media questions about the numbers . Schwab thought the 800 figure was too high and reportedly wanted the agency to correct it.
Josh McCown signed a $10 million deal to be the starter, but Bridgewater learning under his guidance is the best thing for him. The Jets are a flawless team for Bridgewater to re-establish himself as an National Football League quarterback.
If he does reach a plea deal with prosecutors, the only other option for Cruz is life in prison without the possibility of parole. Cruz's attorneys have said he would plead guilty if the death penalty was not pursued in the Valentine's Day massacre.
The group's has weathered the dieselgate storm well financially in spite of the billions in cash outflows due to the scandal. The Volkswagen Group is expanding its production of electric vehicles to 16 locations around the globe by the end of 2022.
Adviser to CM Kejriwal resigns
Jain told The Hindu on Tuesday that he had resigned citing personal reasons and family commitments. They have also been observing a five-minute silence at work every day.
AIMIM to support TRS in Telangana in biennial elections to RS
Meanwhile, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley will contest from Uttar Pradesh and Union Law Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad from Bihar. Rane had recently quit the Congress to join the BJP and has been rewarded with a ticket for the Upper House from Maharashtra.
Muhammad Wilkerson signing 1-year deal with Packers
After the Green Bay Packers released Jordy Nelson , rumors started circulating that the team was not done and had more work to do. The longtime Jet recorded just eight sacks in the past two seasons, and he struggled to consistently generate pressure.
Foreign law firms not allowed to practice in India
However, the Bombay High Court in Lawyers' Collective had held that foreign law firms could not open liaison offices in India. Ajay Shaw, partner, DSK Legal, said: "This judgment will not have any bearing on Indian law firms at this stage".
Trump envisions space force someday in military
President Donald Trump wants a 'space force '. "Then I said , 'What a great idea!' Maybe we'll have to do that, '" Trump said. Trump continued by noting that the concept of a space force was one he both thought up and had previously dismissed.
More Kids? Kim Kardashian Reveals Plans for Baby No. 4
The clip shows the reality star effortlessly slaying the windy slopes of Utah while a friend follows along filming her. Kim and Kanye started dating in 2012 shortly after the end of her 72-day marriage to Kris Humphries.
Eagles release TE Brent Celek, their longest-tenured player
Wednesday to cut $9.8 million in salary and they just freed up a good chunk of that by restructuring Lane Johnson's contract. And as the Eagles aim to situate themselves as perennial contenders, they become more appealing to veterans like Ngata.
Metro future: Elon Musk showed new development
The Shanghai Municipal Commission of Commerce did not immediately respond to calls and faxed requests for comment. Musk referred to the new plan for the public transit part of The Boring Company as the "urban loop system ".
Bills send Glenn to Cincy
The Bills had been looking to unload Glenn and the Bengals were in desperate need of an upgrade at the offensive tackle position. Glenn, 28, has played six seasons with the Bills since being selected out of Georgia in the second round of the 2012 NFL Draft .
Zayn Malik, Gigi Hadid split after two years of dating
Malik called Hadid an incredible soul and explained that he was grateful for everyone that is respecting their decision. As for Hadid, she stated that she wants nothing but the best for Malik and will continue to support him as a friend.